Strings are used to store and manipulate sequences of characters. The String class offers a variety of methods to perform operations on them. In C#, strings are immutable which means that once a string is created, it cannot be altered. This might appear to be restrictive, but it actually improves security and performance. Whenever you need to make any changes to a string, a new string will be created with the modifications, and the old string will be discarded.

String Declaration and Initialization

There are various ways in which you can declare strings in programming. One way is to directly initialize strings using string literals, while another way is to use the String constructor with a character array. Both methods have their own advantages and usage scenarios


string msg = "Hello, World!";
Console.WriteLine(msg);  //Output "Hello, World!"

char[] letters = { 'H', 'e', 'l', 'l', 'o' };
string greeting = new string(letters);
Console.WriteLine(greeting);   //Output "Hello"

Manipulating Strings

C# offers a wide range of methods for manipulating strings. By using the + operator, you can easily concatenate strings. In addition, you can compare strings, search for specific content within strings, and even split them into arrays. These features make string manipulation much easier and efficient in C#


string fullName = "Estudy" + " " + "247";
Console.WriteLine(fullName);   //Output "Estudy 247"

int index = fullName.IndexOf("247");
Console.WriteLine(index);   //Output "7"

string[] names = fullName.Split(' ');
Console.WriteLine(names[0]);   //Output "Estudy"

Special Characters and Escaping

To include special characters like newlines (\n) or tabs (\t) in a string, you can use escape sequences. However, if you want to avoid the need to escape backslashes in file paths or include newlines directly in the string, you can use verbatim strings. Verbatim strings are created by prefixing a string with the @ symbol.


string filePath = @"C:\Users\Estudy\Documents";

string multiLineString = @"This is a
multi-line string.";

String Interpolation

String interpolation was introduced in C# 6 to allow for more readable syntax, utilizing curly braces {} to specify expressions or variables to be evaluated and included in a string.


string website = "Estudy247";
string greeting = $"Hello, {website}!";
Console.WriteLine(greeting);   //Output "Hello, Estudy247!"

String Methods

The String class offers several useful methods for manipulating strings. Some of the most frequently used methods include ToUpper(), ToLower(), Trim(), StartsWith(), EndsWith(), and Replace(). You can use these methods to change the case of strings, remove any leading or trailing white spaces, verify if a string starts or ends with a particular set of characters, and substitute characters or substrings with new ones.

Performance Considerations

Strings in programming languages are considered immutable. This means that once a string is created, its contents cannot be changed. As a result, operations like concatenation can be time-consuming if done repeatedly in a loop. To avoid such inefficiencies, it’s recommended to use the StringBuilder class instead. StringBuilder is a mutable class that provides an efficient way to append, insert, or remove characters from a string.

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